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History of Tbilisi

History of TbilisiHistory of Tbilisi is measured in millennia. Archaeological studies indicate that the region has been inhabited as early as 4-3 millennia BC. In the V century king Vakhtang Gorgasali gives a decree on the construction of the city to make it the capital of their state.
The Legend said that during hunting Vakhtang Gorgasali released the hawk into the sky. The bird disappeared from sight, and after a long search she was found in the sulfur springs and warm water. The king was so pleased with the place that he decided to build a city here. By the way, in Georgian "tbili" means "warm", hence the name of Tbilisi.
Already in the VI century the town, built in the Kura River, became an important center of trade, politics and culture. This could not attract invaders, and in 627, it was first sacked by the Byzantines and the Khazars raid. At the end of VII century, the domination of Arabs coming to the VIII century, announced Tbilisi center of the emirate. Only 400 years later, in 1122 the city was returned to Georgia, becoming a political and cultural center of the whole Caucasus.
In 1227 the city was captured by Khorezm Sultan Jalal ad-Din. According to the chronicler, the blood flew like a river; they killed everyone - from infants to seniors. The hijackers took off the dome of the Christian church, carried out the icon of the Virgin and the Savior. These shrines were placed on the middle of the bridge over the river Kura, and they ordered the residents to walk across the bridge. Residents refused to trample on the holy icons, and were executed. This day is remembered as the day of remembrance of 100,000 martyrs who sacrificed their lives for the worship of icons.
At the beginning of XIV century, Georgia regained its independence, and even became the seat of the Eastern Catholic Bishop John XXII. But in 1386 was captured by a horde of Tamerlane.
In XV-XVII centuries the city has constantly passed from hand to hand, Iran and the Ottoman Empire fought for it. At the same time, because of the great geographical discoveries gone overland trade routes and Georgia has ceased to be a bridge between Europe and Asia.
In 1783, between Russia and Georgia there was signed St George's treatise, according to which Georgia came under the patronage of the Russian Empire. Iran tried to return the lands of the Caucasus under its control, and during the campaign Tbilisi was burnt. But Russia has defended the Caucasus, and in 1801 it joined the Russian Empire. A ruined city was rebuilt.
In the XIX century Tbilisi lost its status as the capital of Georgia, but gradually got the status of the regional capital of the Caucasus. At this time there began a new stage of development of the city. Expanding trade and industry, there is an active political, economic and cultural life- there is the city's infrastructure. The city became a place of mixing Eastern and Western cultures, and their colors served as the inspiration for many writers and poets.
In 1918, during the revolutions in Russia, Georgia declared its independence, but in 1921 was incorporated into the USSR. The struggle for independence continued, but without success. During the Soviet period Georgia has experienced both positive and negative consequences. The city grew almost 9 times. At the end of XX century, during the collapse of the Soviet Union, Georgia gained its independence. It could not do without demonstrations and bloodshed.
In 2003 an event occurred that went down in history as the "Rose Revolution" that ended with the change of government. Then, on the streets of Tbilisi there came more than 100 thousand people in support of the opposition.
Today, the capital of Georgia is a beautiful city, which adjoins the most architecture of different eras. Monuments of history, dating back from the VI century and the architecture of the XIX century make think that you are somewhere in Europe. It looks like Georgia in the XXI century.